Research Footnotes

Patients Page

  1. Hall, W. What does the history of Australian cannabis policy suggest about its likely future shape? The University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research [online]. Available from: https://www.academia.edu/2867399/What_does_the_history_of_Australian_cannabis_policy_suggest_about_its_likely_future_shape [accessed 15 August 2021].
  2. Grotenhermen, F. (2003). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. Clinical Pharmacokinetics [online]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12648025/ [accessed 15 August 2021].
  3. GW Pharma. (2012). Sativex Product Monograph. Available from: https://pdf.hres.ca/dpd_pm/00016162.PDF [accessed 15 August 2021].

Healthcare Professionals Portal

  1. ElSohly, M., Gul, W. (2014). Constituents of cannabis sativa. Handbook of Cannabis [online]. Available from: https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662685.001.0001/acprof-9780199662685 [accessed 15 August 2021].
  2. Matsuda L., et al. (1990). Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA. Nature [online]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2165569/ [accessed 15 August 2021].
  3. Pertwee, R. (2008). The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. British Journal of Pharmacology [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2219532/ [accessed 15 August 2021].
  4. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2018). FDA Approves First Drug Comprised of an Active Ingredient Derived from Marijuana to Treat Rare, Severe Forms of Epilepsy. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-drug-comprised-active-ingredient-derived-marijuana-treat-rare-severe-forms [accessed 15 August 2021].
  5. Bergamaschi, M., et al. (2011). Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients. Neuropsychopharmacology [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079847/ [accessed 15 August 2021].
  6. Niesink, R., van Laar, M. (2013). Does Cannabidiol Protect Against Adverse Psychological Effects of THC? Frontiers in Psychiatry [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3797438/ [accessed 15 August 2021].
  7. Boehnke, K., et al. (2019). Qualifying Conditions of Medical Cannabis License Holders in the United States. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398594/ [accessed 15 August 2021].
  8. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK425767/#_ncbi_dlg_citbx_NBK425767 [accessed 15 August 2021].
  9. Russo, E. (2016). Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences [online]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27179600/ [accessed 15 August 2021].
  10. Lu, H, and Mackie, K. (2016). An Introduction to the Endogenous Cannabinoid System. Biological Psychiatry [online]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26698193/ [accessed 15 August 2021].
  11. Scholastic. (2011). The Science of the Endocannabinoid System: How THC Affects the Brain and the Body. Available from: http://headsup.scholastic.com/students/endocannabinoid [accessed 15 August 2021].
  12. Argenziano, M. et al. (2019). The Endocannabinoid System in Pediatric Inflammatory and Immune Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6928713/ [accessed 15 August 2021].
  13. Farokhnia, M., et al. (2020). Effects of oral, smoked, and vaporized cannabis on endocrine pathways related to appetite and metabolism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study. Translational Psychiatry [online]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339384908_Effects_of_oral_smoked_and_vaporized_cannabis_on_endocrine_pathways_related_to_appetite_and_metabolism_a_randomized_double-blind_placebo-controlled_human_laboratory_study [accessed 15 August 2021].
  14. Russo, E. (2011). Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British Journal Pharmacology [online]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51485891_Taming_THC_Potential_cannabis_synergy_and_phytocannabinoid-terpenoid_entourage_effects [accessed 15 August 2021].
  15. Mechoulam, R. (2012). Cannabis—A Valuable Drug That Deserves Better Treatment. Mayo Clinic Proceedings [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3498425/ [accessed 15 August 2021].
  16. Grotenhermen, F. (2003). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. Clinical Pharmacokinetics [online]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12648025/ [accessed 15 August 2021].
  17. GW Pharma. (2012). Sativex Product Monograph. Available from: https://pdf.hres.ca/dpd_pm/00016162.PDF [accessed 15 August 2021].

Product Information for Patients (Stella, Libra, Rosa)

  1. Hudson, R, et al. (2019). Cannabidiol Counteracts the Psychotropic Side-Effects of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the Ventral Hippocampus through Bidirectional Control of ERK1–2 Phosphorylation. The Journal of Neuroscience [online]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31570536/ [accessed 19 August 2021].
  2. Health Canada. (2018). Information for Health Care Professionals- Cannabis (marihuana, marijuana) and the cannabinoids. Available from: https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/hc-sc/documents/services/drugs-medication/cannabis/information-medical-practitioners/information-health-care-professionals-cannabis-cannabinoids-eng.pdf [accessed 19 August 2021].
  3. MacCallum, C., Russo, E. (2018). Practical Considerations in Medical Cannabis Administration and Dosing. European Journal of Internal Medicine [online]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29307505/ [accessed 19 August 2021].

Kind Blog - Medicinal cannabis in Australia: what you need to know

  1. Hall, W. What does the history of Australian cannabis policy suggest about its likely future shape? The University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research [online]. Available from: https://www.academia.edu/2867399/What_does_the_history_of_Australian_cannabis_policy_suggest_about_its_likely_future_shape [accessed 23 August 2021].
  2. Gregoire, P. (2017). The History of Recreational Cannabis in Australia. Available from: https://www.sydneycriminallawyers.com.au/blog/the-history-of-recreational-cannabis-in-australia/ [accessed 23 August 2021].

Kind Blog - How can medicinal cannabis help you? A benefits & effects profile

  1. Therapeutic Goods Administration. (2021). Medicinal cannabis Special Access Scheme Category B data. Available from: https://www.tga.gov.au/medicinal-cannabis-special-access-scheme-category-b-data [accessed 17 November 2021].
  2. NPS MedicineWise. (2020). Medicinal cannabis: chronic non-cancer pain. Available from: https://www.nps.org.au/assets/Medicinal-cannabis-evidence-summary-chronic-non-cancer-pain.pdf [accessed 17 November 2021].
  3. Nielsen, S., Sabioni, P., Trigo, J. et al. (2017). Opioid-Sparing Effect of Cannabinoids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Neuropsychopharmacology [online]. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/npp201751 [accessed 17 November 2021].
  4. Australian Centre for Cannabinoid Clinical and Research Excellence. (2019). Prescribing cannabis medicines for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Available from: https://www.australiancannabinoidresearch.com.au/media/1092/acre-prescribing-guidance-cinv.pdf [accessed 17 November 2021].
  5. Therapeutic Goods Administration. (2017). Guidance for the use of medicinal cannabis in the treatment of epilepsy in paediatric and young adult patients in Australia. Available from: https://www.tga.gov.au/publication/guidance-use-medicinal-cannabis-treatment-epilepsy-paediatric-and-young-adult-patients-australia [accessed 17 November 2021].
  6. Therapeutic Goods Administration. (2017). Guidance for the use of medicinal cannabis in the treatment of multiple sclerosis in Australia. Available from: https://www.tga.gov.au/publication/guidance-use-medicinal-cannabis-treatment-multiple-sclerosis-australia [accessed 17 November 2021].

Kind Blog - The importance of TGO 93 & TGO 100 for medicinal cannabis quality

  1. Therapeutic Goods Administration. (2019). Therapeutic Goods (Standard for Medicinal Cannabis) (TGO 93) Order 2018 [online]. Available from: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2019C00328 [accessed 12 January 2022].
  2. Therapeutic Goods Administration. (2018). Therapeutic Goods (Microbiological Standards for Medicines) (TGO 100) Order 2018 [online]. Available from: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2018L01685 [accessed 12 January 2022].


Kind Blog - Terpenes and their role in medicinal cannabis

  1. Cox-Georgian, D., et al. (2019). Therapeutic and Medicinal Uses of Terpenes. Medicinal Plants: From Farm to Pharmacy [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7120914/ [accessed 9th of Feb 2022]
  2. Russo, E. (2011). Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British Journal of Pharmacology [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165946/ [accessed 9th of Feb 2022].
  3. LaVigne, J., et al. (2021). Cannabis sativa terpenes are cannabimetric and selectively enhance cannabinoid activity. Scientific Reports [online]. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-87740-8 [accessed 9th of Feb 2022].
  4. Piomelli, D., Russo, E. (2016). The Cannabis sativa Versus Cannabis indica Debate: An Interview with Ethan Russo, MD. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576603/ [accessed 9th of Feb 2022].
  5. Surendaran, S., et al. (2021). Myrcene - What Are the Potential Health Benefits of This Flavouring and Aroma Agent? Frontiers in Nutrition [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326332/[accessed 9th of Feb 2022].
  6. Sharma, C., et al. (2016). Polypharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: A Dietary Phytocannabinoid of Pharmaceutical Promise. Current Pharmaceutical Design [online]. Available from:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26965491/ [accessed 19th of Feb 2022].
  7. Anandakumar, P., Kamaraj, P., Vanitha, MK. (2020). D-limonene: A multifunctional compound with potent therapeutic effects. Journal of Food Biochemistry [online]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33289132/ [accessed 19th of Feb 2022].
  8. Salehi, B., et al. (2019). Therapeutic Potential of α- and β-Pinene: A Miracle Gift of Nature. Biomolecules [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920849/ [accessed 19th of Feb 2022].
  9. Mendes de Lacerda, G., et al. (2021). Pharmacological and toxicological activities of α-humulene and its isomers: A systematic review. Trends in Food Science & Technology [online]. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0924224421004234 [accessed 19th of Feb 2022].
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Kind Blog - THC vs. CBD: differences between key cannabinoids

  1. Pertwee, R. (2008). The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. British Journal of Pharmacology [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2219532/ [accessed 11 March 2022].
  2. Zou, S., Kumar, U. (2018). Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. Internation Journal of Molecular Science [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5877694/ [accessed 11 March 2022].
  3. Kroon, E., Kuhns, L., Cousijn, J. (2021). The short-term and long-term effects of cannabis on cognition: recent advances in the field. Current Opinion in Psychology [online]. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352250X20301135 [accessed 11 March 2022].
  4. Leweke, FM., et al. (2012). Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3316151/ [accessed 11 March 2022].
  5. Lapraire, RB., et al. (2015). Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. British Journal of Pharmacology [online]. Available from: https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13250 [accessed 11 March 2022].
  6. Pisanti, S., et al. (2017). Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications. Pharmacology & Therapeutics [online]. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0163725817300657 [accessed 11 March 2022]..
  7. Russo, E. (2011). Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British Journal Pharmacology [online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165946/ [accessed 11 March 2022].
  8. Grotenhermen, F. (2003). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. Clinical Pharmacokinetics [online]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12648025/ [accessed 11 March 2022].
  9.  Australian Government Federal Register of Legislation. (2022). Poisons Standard February 2022 [online]. Available from: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2022L00074 [accessed 16 March 2022].
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  11. Therapeutic Goods Administration. (2021). Authorised Prescribers [online]. Available from: https://www.tga.gov.au/form/authorised-prescribers [accessed 11 March 2022].